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How to setup Tor Bridge

I am not going to detail what is tor and all. Because if you already looking to setup Tor bridge, I assume that you already know about tor 😊. You can learn more about tor here anyways

In my setup I’ve used Lubuntu ( Focal distribution) ( ) light weight ubuntu base distro on spare old NUC box. This setup needs very little resources since Lubuntu design to run on your old hardware. Also, system can run 24/7 with very little power consumption.

First you need to get install latest tor. Because Debain LTS ver does not always give you the latest stable tor. if your tor bridge not safe, your intended user will not be safe either.

***** Enable package manager

# apt install apt-transport-https

***** Next go the to /etc/apt/sources.list or a new file in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ add below entries,

   deb <DISTRIBUTION> main

   deb-src <DISTRIBUTION> main

in my case it was little different because Focal dropped 32-bit support,

   deb     [arch=amd64] focal main

   deb-src [arch=amd64] focal main

***** You can fine your distro ver by running lsb_release -c in terminal.

***** Then add gpg Keys to sign packages

# wget -qO- | gpg --import

# gpg --export A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89 | apt-key add –

***** Install Key rings

# apt update

# apt install tor

Get more info here

****** Install Tor and proxy packages

# apt-get  install tor

# apt-get install obfs4proxy

# apt-get update

***** Brows into /etc/tor/  and right click and edit as admin torrc file or open with terminal editor,

Comment out or add these lines if the do not exists,

BridgeRelay 1

ORPort TODO1 = In my case TODO1 replace with 9001

ServerTransportListenAddr obfs4 = I changed TODO2 to 9002

ExtORPort auto

ContactInfo = change out your address you want to be contact if the relay have issue

Nickname PickANickname = set a nickname whatever you like

ServerTransportPlugin obfs4 exec /usr/bin/obfs4proxy

Log notice file /var/log/tor/notices.log

****** Set NoNewPrivileges=no in these two files,



After that run below in terminal,

# systemctl daemon-reload

# systemctl restart tor

***** Now you need to port forward above set ports, so that Tor can reach your bridge.

Find more info here ,

Install VirtualBox Guest Addition in Ubuntu

First from virtual machine menu, click Devices and click on Insert Guest Addition CD Image. This process will add guest addition CD inside VM.

Bring terminal and run below,

sudo apt update
sudo apt install build-essential dkms linux-headers-$(uname -r)

Then brows into the CD from GUI interface and right click somewhere in the CD and click open terminal here. This bring Terminal within CD

then simply run,

sudo su

./ --nox11

You will need to reboot VM.

How to Install Volatility in Kali

The Volatility Framework is a completely open collection of tools, implemented in Python under the GNU General Public License, for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples. ” Volatility GitHub

Kali Linux has dropped volatility from their new release and you won’t be able to install it as usual apt-get install. You can go to GitHub and get info to install it via volatility download But when you start running it you will see many error pop up. This mainly due to no python availability in new debian and missing dependencies.

It took me few hours of fiddling around with various package install and reading through many post. But this is the method I was able to test and get it working.

Big thanks to Jason @ Jase IT and whoever did post to install python2 @

Sudo su

apt-get update

###Install phython2

apt install python2

####Install pip2

curl –output


If Error happened run below and then run python2

curl –output

###Install python3

apt install python3

###Install pip3

apt install python3-pip

###Install dependency

apt-get install pcregrep libpcre++-dev python-dev -y

###Upgrade setuptool

pip2 install –upgrade setuptools (make sure it is dash dash before upgrade setuptools NOT single dash)

###Install pip dependency

pip2 install pycrypto

pip2 install distorm3

###Download and extract volatility from listed as “Source Code”

###CD into the location source code

python install

python -h to see more info


An installation step failed. Kali Linux Install Error

I’ve recently face an error with Kali Linux install in VMware Player and even after giving ample enough space /resources it was keep falling with install step failed and I’ve confirm that VM installer has internet access.

This is pretty much loop back even after restart the install. I’ve tried many times and different methods to install and come back to screen saying hit continue and it will bring up menu that you can skip the step of installing software, pretty much you will loose the GUI and all Kali packages.

After few hours browsing and cursing this the method I used to get kali install and functioning.

**** Basically hit continue and once you come to next step where you have option to skip,skip the step and installer will continue but when kali boot back you will be presented with basic debain shell.

****Log into the shell with your username and password then run these in a order and reboot. Make sure that your Kali can reach to the internet.

This command will install GUI XFACE, after install you will be able to log into Kali GUI.

***sudo apt-get install kali-desktop-xfce

Then you need to update kali install,

***sudo apt update

After this kali need to download base tool set via meta package install. This step will install base Kali tool and some other top tools. You can refer to this link for Kali meta packages in detail

*** sudo apt update && sudo apt install kali-linux

*** sudo apt update && sudo apt install kali-linux-full

Here is a great blog post to install meta packages

DISM ERROR 0x800f081f

You may have seen error 0x800f081f while trying to repair windows with DISM command. It is usually looks like below,

This is the command sequence to fix it,

*** dism /online /cleanup-image /checkhealth

***Dism.exe /Online /Cleanup-Image /AnalyzeComponentStore

***If Above came as yes run Dism.exe /online /Cleanup-Image /StartComponentCleanup

***DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth

My case above didn’t work for whatever the reason and had to mount original server install ISO and ran below command and repair via WIM file in OS install ISO

Dism /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth /Source:wim:X:\Sources\Install.wim:1/limitaccess ( X was the drive letter for my ISO)

Make sure to run all command in Admin mode in CMD.

Upgrade ESXI 6.7 U1 to U3

This method apply to upgrade Dell ESXI server 6.7 U1 to U3

Go to Dell vmware esxi u3 patch download page

Download file and upload in to your ESXI datastore.

Put the host to maintenance mode.

Then ssh into esxi host via putty and run this command

esxcli software vib install -d /vmfs/volumes/Store1/updates/

make sure to to change store location and zip file name as per your environment.

After the completion, reboot the esxi


Jabber Install Script

As Cisco jabber released a new version to fix some security vulnerabilities, I had a opportunity to mass update the existing jabber versions. Below is tested script that I used to successfully deploy the Jabber 12.9.1 version to all Windows endpoints. You can edit this as needed and deploy Jabber 12.9.1. My script basically removed existing Jabber 12.8.1 and 12.6.2 and install latest 12.9.1.

REM Uninstall Jabber 12.8.1

“msiexec.exe” /x {6E87407E-2EFD-4C7F-B167-8219279226E6} /qn /norestart

REM Uninstall Jabber 12.6.2

“msiexec.exe” /x {BEFF5578-DB83-4AFA-8C40-4A005F2A3BF9} /qn /norestart

REM Delete regkey Jabber 12.6.2

reg delete “HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Installer\Products\8855248850B85EC4787609E82C36C6B2” /f

REM Delete regkey Jabber 12.8.1

reg delete “HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Installer\Products\7D843DE4BA2A2DC4C89F532E22C06EC9” /f

REM Install Jabber 12.9.1

msiexec.exe /i \share location\CiscoJabberSetup.msi /qn CLEAR=1

Renew Cisco Switch Self-Sign Certificate

This post mainly refer to Cisco Catalyst switches and this I have tested on production network without any issues. But again proceed with caution!!. Cisco recommend to have a CA trust point configured on all the Cisco devices for secure communication. But if you do not have one switch will fall back to a self-sign certificate which we need to renew over the time. This is the full article from Cisco

Also great community article

Here are the steps for how to do it in short form,

*** SSH into the switch or console connect.

***show crypto pki certificates —– to get the certificates and show you all the certificates. This will show you all the switch certs and you will be able to locate expired one.

***Locate the ID of the cert that has expired date and it will usually show you something like TP-self-signed-51XXXXXX

***Switch to privilege mode

***no ip http secure-server ——-disable https server before do any renewal

*** no crypto pki trustpoint TP-self-signed-51XXXXX —- this id you were located running first command

***ip http secure-server ———re enables the https server and generates a new trustpoint and certificate

*** do show crypto pki certificates – check the new cert is there with new validity period

Then you are done.

SCCM Reporting Error After SQL Upgrade. (Failed to load expressions host assembly)

Few Weeks back I had the chance to upgrade SQL server from 2012 to 2016 which host SCCM DB. Usually SQL Upgrades are very straight forward process. You can read a very good article about how to do SQL upgrade here.

But after straight forward upgrade and testing everything was fine except SCCM, reporting will not load and was throwing an error Failed to load expressions host assembly. But SQL server was working without an any error.

MINDCORE BLOG: Failed to load expression host assembly. Details ...

After looking through many logs I was able to located the issue which was cause by SQL file location changes during the upgrade. Then I had to brows through the internet to find a solution and Microsoft recommend solution was to reinstall Reporting Service Point (RSP) role which is describe here

But I wasn’t dare enough to go and mess around SCCM and found very good solution here This was listed solution for upgrade from 2008 to 2012 but same solution worked for my situation also.

****Basically, copy srsresources.dll from old SSRS install location which was in my case was in \Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSRS11.MSSQLSERVER\Reporting Services\Report Server\Bin


New SSRS location \Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSRS13.MSSQLSERVER\Reporting Services\Report Server\Bin

****Then find rssrvpolicy.config file in new SSRS install (\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSRS13.MSSQLSERVER\Reporting Services\Report Server\Bin) open with note pad

****Then search for the SRSResources URL within note pad and change the URL to new location where DLL copied in first step.

Then you are done.

How To Renew a Microsoft Terminal Server SSL Certificate.

Recently, I had to renew one of the remote desktop server farm SSL certificate. There are many instructions and videos for renewal of self-sign SSL for RDS gateway but there are only few places I was able to find anything for trusted SSL renewal.

In this blog I’ve used images from (, because I really didn’t have chance to take snapshot of every step I did and cannot risk leaking any info on servers I worked on( if I forget to black out some parts 🙂 ). But basically cert renewal is the same and no difference initially with few important changes. Server I worked was 2016 Server.

****First, open IIS Manger and click on Server name.

Renew your SSL Certificate : SBS 2011 Essentials | Title (Required)

****Then click on server certificate about to expire and right hand top corner click on create certificate request and this will bring up certificate request wizard. In this fields make sure to fill the name as exactly as current rds gateway name and choose bit length as 2048.


****Then save the cert request where ever you want. But I usually save to the root C:\Cert\2020. So I can keep track on old certs too. Just in case if I need old one I’ve it close by. This a text file with all the crypto info.


Then head to your favourite SSL provider and complete the cert renewal. My cert provider was Go daddy and usually godaddy auto renew SSL but cannot use this SSL due to the fact that it is missing private key info from the server. So basically click on cert and copy and past entire certreq.txt file info and request the SSL from Go daddy.

****Then Go daddy will do it things and send out email to whoever mange domain to confirm cert renew. In this case I had access to the email account who mange the domain. Once you go daddy issue cert go ahead and choose IIS as a cert and download to the server cer location. I choose C:\certs\2020.

****Then we gonna go to next step and open IIS Manger again and same place click on complete cert renewal. Then select the CA issues cer and name the cert complete the request which will install new SSL on IIS.


****After cert install SSL need to bind into port 443 in order to be active.

****So we are done with SSL for IIS, then need to assign cert for RD Gateway. Open TS Gateway Manager and right-click the local TS Gateway server, and then click Properties.

****On the SSL Certificate tab, click Select an import and it will show certificate just install in IIS and you can simply install it. After that Click OK to close the Properties dialog box for the TS Gateway server.

How to renew RDP service self signed certificate in Windows 2012 ...

*****After this step you are done and RDS gateway will show with proper cert.